Reurbanisierung und residenzielle Selbstselektion - Determinanten der Standort- und Verkehrsmittelwahl Bewusster Innenstadtbewohner
- Reurbanisation and Residential Self-Selection - Location and Travel Mode Choice of Intentional Urbanites
Bruns, André; Vallée, Dirk (Thesis advisor); Gertz, Carsten (Thesis advisor)
Aachen : Institut für Stadtbauwesen und Stadtverkehr (2015, 2015)
Dissertation / PhD Thesis
In: Berichte / Institut für Stadtbauwesen und Stadtverkehr 58
Page(s)/Article-Nr.: 262 S. : graph. Darst.
Zugl.: Aachen, Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 2014
Starting point for this dissertation is the phenomenon of a "renaissance of the urban" or "reurbanisation" and the question of what consequences may arise from this trend concerning mobility and travel demand within urban areas. Besides that the thesis draws on the discussion on residential self-selection and the question to which extend spatial differences in travel behaviour may be attributed to the built environment directly or are results of attitude- / preference-induced residential location choices. The opening question of the dissertation thus is, whether reurbanisation is the result of travel oriented residential self-selection and vice versa what role accessibility may play within strategies to strengthen reurbanisation. In this context the main aim is to analyse the effects of residential self-selection on travel mode choice on two levels. On an individual level it is analysed whether reurbanisation is in part a result of residential self-selection and which effects on travel behaviour arise from that. On the collective level it is explored whether a group of "intentional urbanites" exists and how they vary from other groups of urban dwellers in terms of travel related attitudes and preferences. The analyses on both levels are based on extensive statistical data derived from a survey on location choice (comprising travel related attitudes and location preferences) and travel mode choice among "movers" (2.513 households with 5.126 individuals) in three German cities. The dataset contains cross-sectional data as well as quasi-longitudinal data from the time prior to location choice. On the individual level the effects of residential self-selection are assessed by means of statistical control within binary logistic regression models on location as well as travel mode choice. The identification of intentional urbanites is based upon a classification which draws on the concept of spatial match / mismatch. The logistic regression models on location choice provide evidence that choosing an inner city location is to a significant extent result of travel or accessibility related preferences and thus that self-selection is at work. Not surprisingly, especially households which prefer location where shops, working places etc. are in walking or biking distance have a high probability to self-select into inner urban areas. It can be concluded that reurbanisation is at least partly the result of travel related self-selection and that therefore specific urban accessibility qualities are an important urban asset to "fuel" reurbanisation. Furthermore the models prove the expected direct and indirect effects of residential self-selection on travel mode choice. Firstly the travel related location preferences have a strong direct effect on mode choice even when controlling for built environment and individual characteristics. Secondly it can be concluded that also indirect effects of location preferences via the built environment characteristics of the self-selected living location are existing. Based on the above mentioned classification a consonant group of "intentional urbanites" is identified and distinguished from other citizen groups namely "other urbanites" and "suburbanites". The intentional urbanites represent about one third of the overall sample and two thirds of the inner city sample and thus are a relevant group for the development of travel demand. Compared with the other citizen groups a clear profile of the intentional urbanites concerning location preferences, travel related attitudes, car ownership as well as travel mode choice can be distinguished which is in line with the results on the individual level. Compared with other urbanites the Intentional urbanites a) have a stronger location preference for good short range accessibilities, b) have a significantly lower car ownership rate (before and after moving), c) show a significantly higher positive evaluation of attitudes on cycling as well as public transport (without negative evaluations of attitudes concerning car use), d) have a significantly higher share of bicycle trips and lower share of car trips, e) show a more multimodal behaviour.Therefore the intentional urbanites are a considerable potential for a sustainable development of urban mobility and travel demand. To make use of the potential active and consistent planning strategies have to be implemented. Besides focussing on mobility rather than traffic an adequate planning approach aims on creating dense, functionally diverse living environments and high quality transportation systems resulting in excellent accessibilities as well as providing attractive street design which promote the use of environmentally friendly travel modes. Besides that the results show that such strategies have to be accompanied by demand oriented measures. An integrated policy approach may then promote further self-selection and subsequently support reurbanisation.
- Chair and Institute of Urban and Transport Planning