Die Berücksichtigung des Schutzes kritischer Infrastrukturen in der Raumplanung : zum Stellenwert des KRITIS-Grundsatzes im Raumordnungsgesetz
Aachen / Institut für Stadtbauwesen und Stadtverkehr, RWTH Aachen University (2015) [Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis]
Page(s): XVIII, 215 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) and resilience is an upcoming and increasingly relevant issue to public administrations, societies and economies. The frequent occurrence of global disasters reminds us of how deeply we rely on infrastructure services that are complex, interrelated and interdependent. It has become evident that, according to the definition of critical infrastructure, failure or functional impairment of such organizations and institutions of special importance for the country and its people would lead to severe supply bottlenecks, significant disturbance of public order or other dramatic consequences. Current strategies for infrastructure resilience often focus on sector specific risk assessment and management activities. But from the regional planner`s perspective, infrastructure sites and alignments like highways, rail tracks, transmission lines and water or gas pipelines cannot be considered as separate and independent from surrounding conditions. As damage of infrastructure components may have cascading effects, mutual influences resulting from proximity, intersections and interconnections to other infrastructures have to be considered. In 2008, a new principle of spatial planning was added to the German Federal Spatial Planning Act. It demands Critical Infrastructure Protection be taken into account in all spatial planning activities. Since the term CIP is quite young, this problem has not yet been explicitly treated in spatial planning activities. The dissertation analyzes the definitions and concepts related to CIP. It presents results from a qualitative analysis of available regional spatial structure plans and from a survey of all regional spatial planning authorities in Germany. It shows that regional spatial planning has marginally dealt with CIP related questions like infrastructure reliability and spatial exposure in the past. However, the CIP concept, in addition to regional spatial planning methods and procedures, needs comprehensive efforts to approach and synchronize both public functions.The proposed methodology analyses the density of infrastructures in relation to their cross-sectoral and accumulative relevance. It maps spatial criticality by defining a proximity factor which is multiplied with an indicator representing the prominence of each component. This allows mapping hot-spots of highly accumulated critical infrastructures.